& UK Dog Law Consultant

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Puppy Talk

Week 1 to 4

The pup has just been born, mom will take care of her main needs at this point, The mom needs time to bond with her litter and wont need much assistance from ourselves, Puppies are fragile little things and it is best to leave mom to it, picking up the small pups could stress mom so little human interaction is the best thing at this point.

However during this period and whlst there eyes are still shut, you can influence their experinces by looking after mom, your presence and smells will be notice, if mom is happy with you stroking the pups gently then do so briefly, so they can sense the pressure change in their little bodies, they can smell you.

Once the pup opens his eyes, he can see and hear you, he will want to explore more and at this point you should increase handling, it is a good time to introduce multiple human voices so they can get used to the sound and illiminate fear, gaining confidence around humans, it can be a good time to introduce background noises, opening the windows for sounds of traffic, low playing cd tapes of thunder, fireworks, just so they can desensitise to the sounds, this way the pup as it grows will be more confident around the loud noises,

The pups will want to explore there immediate area and will be probably be everywhere they can get to, so you need to make sure there are no hazards, like trailing wires, sharp edges, ensure they are in a controlled environment in which they cannot get into mischief and injure themselves.  It is a good time to introduce toys, different textures and flooring, a piece of lino can be placed around there areas, carpet, wood floors, if the puppy is entering other rooms then this must be supervised and they must not be left unattended.

Mom will start to take time out and leave the pups alone for short periods this must be encouraged so that the pups are used to mom leaving and coming back, this will help with separation anxiety as the pup grows.

Week 4 to 14

This is the time when social learning is critical, the pup should now be used to humans and needs many positive introductions as possible, meeting children, babies, men, women, old people,  This is a good time to introduce the dog to a grooming brush, also checking ears and eyes, so they get used to being handled by you and different people, opening the mouth to check teeth is another practise. This will all help when it time to introduce them to the vet.

When the pup is vaccinated introducing your pup to other dogs is important, doing this in controlled environment is of paramount importance.  A dog may not be Vaccinated until around 9 months onwards, The pup will miss out on a lot of learning opportunities, but you can get a titre test and speak with your vet, who will advise the best course. Puppy Classes are a good way of socialising your pup, but please make sure it is a reputable class with only a small group of learners eg 4-6 pups.

As you start to walk outside with your pup on a lead, you must slowly and calmly introduce them to traffic, bikes, buses, pushchairs, You see dogs who snap and struggle to get free from a lead if a large sided vehicle comes passed, desensitising your pup to these things will avoid situation like that in later years.

Obviously flooding is not going to help this matter, so don’t take you pup to a busy junction and stand at the edge of the kerb, this will be a very negative experience for your pup and may never recover from it, creating many many unwanted behaviours and the pup will go into fight or flight, at such a young age, this is not what is needed.

I would suggest to do it from a distance, so that the noises can be heard but not to the point where the ground is vibrating under their feet, constantly reassure the dog at this time, food treats are a good thing to help make the situation into a more positive one, distracting his attention from the big scary noise and huge structure, which could be a tractor or a HGV to me and you, doing this periodically will help the pup acclimatise to it. Taking him for a drive in the car, as long has he is secure and safe inside the car, this may help him see traffic more close up and he will be able to travel in the car without trauma.

Also, not forgetting the simple household things that are used nearly every day, things like the hoover and washing machine need to be taken into consideration, it really is anything and everything at this point, including collar, lead, harness. Everything your dog is introduced to must have a positive outcome.

Obviously things can sometimes, not, go according to plan, this is life, but as long as we recognise when the dog is having a negative experience we can remove him from the situation and re-introduce him to it again later on.

At home the most basic things need to be thought about, feed times, food, toilet training, it’s a lot of work so a check sheet or daily schedule is a good idea, training doesn’t have to be time consuming and frustrating. Just take your time, and don’t put too many demands on the pup, he needs to play and enjoy himself as well. Short sessions, always ending with a excersise he can perform well, sit, for instance, as long as the dog is set up to succeed at the end of each session and the  whole lesson experiences are positive and rewarding the dog will eventually become habituated to it.

The Thyroid Gland

The Thyroid Gland is responsible for metabolism, Body Temperature and Heart Function; it is also associated with behaviour changes in dogs. It is the most Common disorder in the Endocrine System and causes genetic implications for breeding.

Hypothyroidism is an underactive gland, where as Hyperthyroidism is an overactive gland. The thyroid is located at either side of the throat and stimulated by a Thyroid Stimulating Hormone or TSH for short.


Hypothyroidism is the most common disorder in dogs, 80% comes from Autoimmune Lymphocytic Thyroiditis. Autoimmune diseases are when the immune systems attacks itself, it mistakes healthy cells as damaged and starts to wipe them out,


It effects mostly large breed dogs and is relatively unheard of in Small/miniature Dog Breeds. Dogs are usually diagnosed between the ages of 4 – 10 years. Clinical findings as quoted in the MSDVet Manual https://www.msdvetmanual.com/endocrine-system/the-thyroid-gland/hypothyroidism

Breeds reported to be predisposed include the Golden Retriever, Doberman Pinscher, Irish Setter, Miniature Schnauzer, Dachshund, Cocker Spaniel, and Airedale Terrier. There does not appear to be a sex predilection, but spayed females appear to have a higher risk of developing hypothyroidism than intact females.


Thyroid Disorders must be carefully diagnosed as the symptoms can mimic other diseases and misdiagnosis is very possible. It is in fact the most over diagnosed disease in dogs.


Hypothyroidism will slow the metabolism down, due to poor oxygen levels in the cells, there is not enough TSH or Cortizol available, this will cause symptoms of lethargy, weight gain, dry flaky skin, it can cause reproductive problems in female dogs, Seizures and mental dullness are other symptoms.


Hyperthyroidism on the other hand, will cause more TSH production, which will cause excess energy, just thinking about that can be worrying, it can cause Jitters in the dog, increased heart rate, the same in humans, ADHD in Human Children, has also been associated with Hyperthyroidism, shaking due to the excess energy. Weight loss and nervousness are other symptoms, its like the dog is in constant fight or flight, this could be dangerous and the cause of aggression in some dogs, so a vet would need to be seen as soon as any new behaviour is noticed, especially with any of the above symptoms,


A vet should be seen with any behaviour changes in the dog.


The causes can be brought on after trauma or Iodine deficiency or after cancer treatment when the immune system is at its weakest. Not forgetting hereditary passing.


Early diagnosis is imperative as when the symptoms have appeared the Gland is usually already damaged, noticing even the slightest physical or behavioural change could save a dogs life.

UK Dog Law

Some Questions answered:

The difference between civil law and criminal law,


Civil law incurs no criminal record, It is a case of Liability, brought by an individual or an organisation, its covers damage to a person or object,  Damage also covers any physiological issues as a result of negligence, the latter which does not have to be proven,

Criminal law can incur a criminal record and is brought to court by the CPS it is a case of Guilty or Not Guilty, This is covered under the Dogs Act 1953 for the protection of Livestock, and if my dog attacked/Killed a sheep this would be a criminal act. A crime against society. Damage to property by a dog is not criminal.


How does the law define ownership of a dog


Ownership is defined by who is feeding and caring for the dog and if it is residing with you, this is enough to prove ownership, Microchipping, and Pet Insurance are not enough to prove ownership.  E.g. I am a Dog Boarder and the dogs I look after, that are in my care, even though I do not own them, whilst they are in my care, I am their keeper and am responsible for the dogs welfare and behaviour.


What does Strictly Liable mean Animals Act 1971


Liability does not depend on whether there is any intention or negligence on the keepers part, if damage is caused you are strictly liable.  Where damage is concerned, negligence does not have to be proven.


  How is negligence determined


Negligence does not have to be determined; if damage is caused then negligence is present.  In the case of Guard Dogs, if you display a sign saying Beware, you are admitting liability by not having the dog tethered or under your control at all times as you are aware the dog can cause harm to innocent people.

If you are aware your dog has an issue that isn’t the norm, and you do not take precautions knowing that a situation could arise, you are negligent.


What are the possible exceptions to liability



  • If the person who is affected by the damage is deemed to be completely to blame for the damage.


  • If the person sustaining the damage voluntarily ‘accepted the risk’ eg, the the person had full knowledge of the dogs behaviour before they accepted it.


  • Animals kept on premises or in a structure where the person who sustained the damage was trespassing.  This is only an exception if the dog was not kept on the property as protection, or , if it was kept for protection or guarding purposes , that this was deemed ‘reasonable’.  Eg, correct signage and in the case of guard dogs, correctly tethered.




How can we protect ourselves from liability where people trespassing onto our property


Signs on the Lockable gate/Double Entry Porch. that states, Dogs Loose, Please do not Enter,

Or Warning, Dogs running Free.  Do not use Guard Dogs signs or Beware of the Dog as you are admitting liability.


What does the Guard Dogs Act 1975 tell us regarding the proper control of guard dogs


Your Guard Dog must be tethered or with you under control at all times.


statutes that relate to trespassing and the protection of livestock


Dogs Act 1953 and Animal Act 1971


The rights of a landowner if he believes that a trespassing dog may injure his animals.


The farmer has the right to shoot your dog for straying on to his land where livestock is grazing whether the dog does anything or not.


You would also have to pay all the court costs should you be found liable by the court.


What is case law and how does it help shape the law for the future


Case law is where a court case has already been tried, you can look at the arguments and see the outcome and set this as a standard for other cases, either for or against the defendant, it would also help make new legislation should the same case details keep recurring from different people.




Seperation Anxiety

Seperation Anxiety


Some dogs suffer from separation anxiety, (Sep Anx) from this point. This is where a dog becomes distressed so badly when you leave them alone, whether this is when you leave the house or simply go and sit in another room, When the dog cannot see you or sense your presence whether this is through sound or smell   become anxious, this psychological behaviour can be very destructive, they can resort to chewing the furniture, shredding the cushions, defecating all over the place.  This is also very bad for the dog’s health Hormones secrete Cortizol which floods the body and shuts down the immune system.

Causes of Sep Anx can be genetic as well as epigenetic, AKA Nature and Nurture.

Genetically, if mom was stressed during pregnancy, the chemical reactions in her body will have been passed to her offspring and they are likely to be sensitive to stress, e.g. highly strung and ready for a disaster which may never come. (Sounds very much like me)! It is the same thing for humans also; if mom is stressed then certain psychological traits will be handed down through the generations. When the Pups are born, eventually mom should be able to go to her safe place, away from the pups to take time out, if this does not happen, maybe mom is on a puppy farm where she is not well looked after and is unable to leave her pups and take time out, Those pups are very likely once removed from mom, say they are sold and they have never been separate from mom or other siblings, they are likely to be very anxious, this will likely lead to sep anx.  Can you imagine, if you had never ever in your early life spent any time on your own, how scary that would be!

So we have a puppy that has just been sold and the family concerned has picked the puppy up on a Friday so they can spend the weekend with him, getting him settled in before work on Monday,  Sounds Good, Until Monday comes, first of all, the new family, or at least one member of it, is probably as concerned as the pup is, as to why everyone is rushing around and some people are leaving the house, others getting ready to leave, and that family member is fussing around the pup, lets say New Mommy, is as worried as the pup, about being apart for a length of time,  The pup knows something is wrong.  I want to add at this point, the  Dog could also be a rescue, who is suddenly wondering why New Mommy is panicking so much about leaving the house, even without sep anx, this could start off the actual behaviour.

The one thing that must never be done to a dog with sep anx, is they must NEVER be put in a crate, in order to stop destructive behaviour; this will make matters so much worse. One method I have come across on You Tube was by John Rogerson, named Monday Lecture https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m7WK1gJEvRU

I did like his experience of how to help some dogs with sep anx which included leaving the room, placing a recently worn item of clothing next to the door and maybe a recording of the vacuum cleaner, exit quietly, also he had a great technique for training you dog not to be destructive by simply taking one of those bone shaped treats, the ones that are hollow and fill it with paste, (dog food/Cheese) and place it where he can find it, but do not give it to him.  When he finds it and starts to chew, you can walk in and say, whose done this and remove the bone, that can be left out when you are absent from the house, and he should associate you coming back in the room if he chews this bone, this save him chewing the furniture.  Obviously not all dogs react the same, some times desensitising them is necessary, by using sit and stay, leaving the room and immediately coming back in with praise and a treat, use different rooms/doors, and over time making the  absence longer and longer. It’s all about making them feel safe and secure and letting them always know that you WILL come back.

Positive Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement


Positive reinforcement gives the dog an opportunity to make his own decision by enforcing something good like food, toys or praise for doing a specific behaviour.

Positive Reinforcement can be used to modify a behaviour or to teach a completely new behaviour to a pup

With Positive Reinforcement the idea is to add something good, The dog will learn that a good consequence will come from performing the desired behaviour you are trying to achieve and will be more likely to perform it.  If you are asking your dog to sit down he will be motivated to achieve the correct response if he knows he will be rewarded.  Richer Food Treats can be used for more complex tasks where you need to keep the focus for a longer period of time.  The dog will need to be motivated to do so and his normal food treats may not suffice.

Positive reinforcement will increase the likelihood of the behaviour in the future.

Knowing your dogs favourite reward is key to this, most dogs are food motivated, certainly Labradors, who act like they are never fed. Others like a Cocker Spaniel who I walk, has no interest in food but would do anything for you to throw his ball.  Others like a French BullDog I know adores cuddles and will do whatever you ask as long as you are offering cuddles and kisses. 

To coach a dog to lie down on cue I would use a tasty treat and lure the dog with the food, I would position the treat around the dog so that he follows it and retrieves the treat as a reward.

So to first sit down we would take the treat over the dogs head and back towards its tail until his bum hits the floor, and then forward in front of him on the ground, guiding the dog so he lies down, this will work well with timid dogs who do not have much confidence as it will build a trust that a treat will be received and no harm will happen.

Using a clicker in conjunction with a treat will help mark the behaviour. with a clicker you click then give a treat and repeat this each time, click then treat, the dog will come to associate the click with something good, so you would ask the dog first, to sit, click immediately when the dogs bum hits the ground then produce a treat, you can also add a cue word after the click “sit” then treat.

Next you would use the treat in order to make the dog lie down, this will take practise. But on each successful move in the correct direction a click and a treat can be given until the dog lies down.

This can be improved upon by only giving the dog a treat at the end of the whole movement, so if you ask him to lie down, the click and treat will only come when the dog has lied down, not if he has sat down first.

We must not reward any other offered behaviours, like paw lifting, extra behaviours should be ignored.

Your rewards can be varied and motivated with a click only, this will keep the dog listening and wondering when the next treat will come.  Randomly offer treats after the click, try not to form any patterns as the dog may start to respond to habits and body language.  When the behaviour is being performed comfortably then we should vary the environment to proof the behaviour by slowing introducing distractions.  A higher/Tastier treat should be offered here to keep your dog motivated and focused on the task at hand so the new behaviours can be generalised in different environments